Science

Are Some Supermassive Black Holes Really Wormholes?

In many ways, black holes and wormholes are similar. Both are solutions to the gravitational field equations of general relativity, and both are the site of high gravitational forces. The main difference is that no object can theoretically come back after crossing the event horizon of a black hole, whereas any body entering a wormhole could theoretically reverse its trajectory. However, unlike black holes, wormholes are still purely theoretical objects. But according to physicists, some supermassive black holes could actually be wormholes. And it is their activity that would betray them.

Unusual emissions of gamma rays could reveal that what appear to be supermassive black holes are in fact huge wormholes. Wormholes are tunnels in space-time that can theoretically allow travel between two points in space. Einstein’s general theory of relativity suggests that wormholes are possible, although their mechanism of formation has not yet been elucidated.

Assuming that wormholes may exist, the researchers investigated ways to distinguish a wormhole from a black hole. They focused on supermassive black holes with masses millions to billions of times that of the Sun, believed to exist at the heart of most, if not all, galaxies. For example, at the center of our galaxy, the Milky Way, is Sagittarius A *, a black hole with a mass of about 4.5 million solar masses.

Any material falling into the mouth of a supermassive wormhole would likely move at extremely high speeds due to its strong gravitational fields.

Physicists have modeled the dynamics of matter flowing through the two mouths of a wormhole to where these mouths meet, the “throat” of the wormhole. The result of these collisions is that spheres of plasma expand out of the two mouths of the wormhole at relativistic speeds.

Wormholes: gamma emissions with characteristic energies

The researchers compared the emissions from these wormholes with those from active galactic nuclei (AGNs), whose electromagnetic emissions are much more intense than those of an entire classical galaxy. AGNs are usually surrounded by rings of plasma called accretion discs and can emit powerful astrophysical jets from their poles.

Traversable wormhole connecting two AGNs; the rings of plasma surround the throat of the wormhole. Credits: M.Yu. Piotrovich et al. 2020

On the same subject: A theoretical solution would allow the existence of stable and traversable wormholes

Plasma spheres from wormholes can reach temperatures of around 18 billion ° C. At such heat, the plasma would produce gamma rays with energies of 68 million electronvolts. In contrast, AGN accretion disks do not emit gamma radiation because their temperature is too low for that. Additionally, although AGN jets can emit gamma rays, these would mostly travel in the same direction as the jets – any movement in a sphere could suggest they are coming from a wormhole.

Additionally, if an AGN resided in a sort of galaxy known as Type I Seyfert – in which hot gas grows rapidly – previous work has suggested that it probably wouldn’t generate many gamma rays with energies of 68 million eV. If astrophysicists saw an AGN in a type I Seyfert galaxy with a significant peak of such rays, it could mean that the apparent AGN was in fact a wormhole, the researchers said.

Sources: arXiv

some supermassive black holes wormholes

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