Science

Wormholes could be stable and constitute true space-time shortcuts

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Wormholes are hypothetical cosmic objects that would be a shortcut between point A and point B in space, with the spacetime between the entrance (a black hole) and the exit (a white hole) as “Bent” over itself. According to some previous studies, this “passage” between the two space-time holes would be too unstable to allow any object to venture there, while others indicate that a wormhole would rupture as soon as it formed. But a new study contradicts these predictions and offers a stable and walkable wormhole model.

Earlier this year, we already presented a study that proposed a “traversable” wormhole model, suggesting fancy, if slightly incomplete, equations and assumptions based on the Einstein-Dirac-Maxwell theory. Today, Pascal Koiran, an astrophysicist at the École Normale Supérieure de Lyon, and his colleagues also announce that they have developed a theory showing that wormholes are in fact stable hypothetical astrophysical structures, but this time based on Eddington’s metric- Finkelstein. .

If these structures were stable, it would mean that an object, capable of withstanding all the mechanical stresses of the same, could travel at extreme speeds (from the perspective of a traveler who would not take the shortcut) between the exit and the entrance of a hole. worm, as it is notably represented in certain science fiction works (Interstellar, to name the most striking of recent years). These space-time connections are known as “Einstein-Rosen bridges.”

Eddington-Finkelstein metric: make wormholes passable

In the scientific literature, it is commonly believed that extreme forces within a wormhole force it to stretch and break like a rubber band as soon as it is formed. But Albert Einstein and Natan Rosen, pioneers of this theory, built their wormhole model on the usual Schwarzschild metric, and most wormhole models use this same metric.

Diagram of a traversable wormhole that would connect two distant regions of the Universe (here Earth and the star Sirius). The part outside the conventional fabric of space-time (of which the Einstein-Rosen bridge is a part) is “hyperspace.” Such a passage would allow to reach Sirius much faster, because the distance traveled is much less. © Eric W. Davis

Therefore, in their new study, Koiran and his colleagues use another approach, based on the Eddington-Finkelstein metric, which they describe in an article available on the arXiv prepress server and which should be published shortly in the Journal. Of Modern Physics D.

The coordinates used in your model are obtained, by transformations (of the temporal variable), from those of Schwarzschild. And it is this transformation that brings the main ingredient that leads to a completely different result when it comes to the stability of the object.

Exceed the event horizon of a black hole

“It is well known that a test mass falling into a black hole does not reach the event horizon for any finite value of the Schwarzschild time variable t. On the other hand, we show that the event horizon is reached for a finite value of the Eddington-Finkelstein time variable t ′, ”the researchers write in their paper.

Once they showed that a black hole’s event horizon, the limit from which any object or light can escape its gravitational pull, was achievable in their Eddington-Finkelstein wormhole model, they calculated how a massive particle would react. crossing an Einstein-Rosen bridge. They then show that the particle would not only reach the entrance to the black hole, but would continue its trajectory through the “tunnel” of space-time, finally reaching the exit. Therefore, it would be expelled by the white hole, which, unlike the black hole, only expels matter.

“Such behavior does not make sense with the Schwarzschild time variable, since it would be equivalent to continuing the trajectory of the particle ‘beyond the end of time'”, the researchers conclude in their paper. They thus suggest that their model would be more “logical” than the previous ones (commonly accepted) to explain the behavior of a wormhole.

Of course, this does not provide convincing proof that wormholes are stable and traversable. In fact, there are many other factors to consider beyond the theory of general relativity, which could show that such an object is actually “impossible” or unstable outside of mathematical models. Models that also take a series of shortcuts, imposed by the limits of our understanding of space-time and the forces at play.

arXiv

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